Analysis of Trace Mineral Elements and Microorganisms in Two Hot Springs in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

Zarraq AL-Faifi1,, Hanan Bosly1,, Mukul Sharma1,*,, Habib Khemira1,, Emad Abada2,, Ghaliah Almalki2,, Gasem M. Abu-Taweel2, and Yosra Modafer2,

1Center for Environmental Research and Studies, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, P.O. Box: 114, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, P.O. Box: 114, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding author: E-mail:


Thermal springs have hydrothermal or volcanic activity, which causes the water to boil up and dissolve any metal that may be present there. It helps in recovery to reduce stress, promote sleep, boost blood circulation, relieve pain and heal skin problems. However, they consist of some heavy and trace metals and some non-metals, such as Mg, Mo, Na, As, Hg, Cd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Ti, Cr and Pb are present. These hot springs are also known to exhibit natural microbiota, which is helpful in maintaining the public health and preventing consumer outbreaks with the advancement of research, microbiological monitoring of hot spring water can be done by utilizing high throughput sequencing. Taking these facts in concern, the present work, hot spring samples were collected from different locations of Al-Harth and Alarda hot springs, Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. The samples collected were analyzed for trace minerals and microbiological activity. These samples were found to exhibit the temperature range from 60 to 70 ºC and an average pH of 6.5 to 8.5. Almost all the samples had shown the presence of trace elements with electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 0.02 to 0.045 dms and 27 to 43 mg/L, respectively. Scattergun metagenomic analysis was performed to determine the microbiological content. The preliminary study reports the microbiome (bacteria, archea and viruses) of alarath hot spring water employing whole-genome high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics. Bacterial species detected were members of the phyla 64% Proteobacteria, 20% Actinobacteria, 6.3% unclassified, 2.2% Deinococcus thermus, 1.4 Firmcutes and 1.6% others. Fecal indicator bacteria, i.e. Escherichia coli or enterococci, were not detected in any samples examined in this study. Both archaeal DNA (0.4%) and viral DNA (0.009%) were found.


Thermal spring, Trace element, Microbiome, Saudi Arabia, Jazan.

   View Article PDF File Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.