A Comprehensive Review for Ruthenium(II) Complexes in Photodynamic Therapy: A Review

Ritu Mukherjee

Department of Chemistry, Dum Dum Motijheel College, Kolkata-700074, India

Corresponding author: E-mail: ritu069@gmail.com


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. In recent years, ruthenium(II) complexes have garnered significant interests as photsensitizers in PDT due to their unique photophysical properties and versatile coordination chemistry. The current developments in the use of Ru(II) complexes as photosensitizers in PDT are thoroughly examined in this review article. The design techniques used to increase their photodynamic effectiveness, increase selectivity and reduce off-target impacts are discussed. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ways in which they influence biological processes are also being explored. Additionally, the Ru(II) complexes with dual functioning, targeting abilities and uses in various disease models are highlighted. Prospects and challenges in this area such as water solubility, biocompatibility and translational issues are discussed. The goal of this review article is to provide a thorough overview of the potential of Ru(II) complexes in PDT and to inspire additional investigation in this fascinating field.


Photodynamic therapy, Ruthenium(II) Complexes, Photosensitizers, Localized cytotoxity.

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