Occurance, Toxicity, Impacts and Removal Technologies of Fluoride ions in Drinking Water: A Review

V. Laxmi1, S. Singh2, J. Hussain3,*, I. Hussain4 and S. Kumar2

1Department of Science and Technology, Mewar University, Gangrar, Chittorgarh-312901, India

2Department of Chemistry, Banasthali University, Banasthali-304022, India

3Upper Yamuna River Board, Ministry of Jal Shakti, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110 066, India

4Public Health Engineering Department, Bhilwara-311001, India

*Corresponding author: E-mail: drjakirhussain@gmail.com


One of the most prevalent pollutants of ground water is fluoride. India is among the 23 nations around the globe where health problems occur due to excess ingestion of fluoride (> 1.5 mg/L) by drinking water. The presence of fluoride in exceeding limits (> 1.5 mg/L) and its related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of India is well documented. Consumption of fluoride couldn’t be avoided because a large section of groundwater is contaminated from it, which results in fluorosis of all the living forms. A number of defluoridation techniques are prevalent. Some of them could be used in day-to-day life for fluoride removal in drinking water. The review article presents the current information on fluoride in environment and its effects on human health and available methods of defluoridation.


Groundwater, Fluoride, Dental fluorosis, Skeletal fluorosis, Defluoridation.

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