Optimization of the Ring Opening of Epoxidized Palm Oil using D-Optimal Design

Nurazira Mohd Nor, Nadia Salih*, and Jumat Salimon

Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

*Corresponding author: E-mail: nadiaalnami@hotmail.com


In the presence of a catalyst, p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA), the ring of epoxidized palm oil (EPO) was opened using oleic acid (OA). The optimization effects of different process variables including the mol ratio of EPO/OA, reaction temperature, PTSA percentage and reaction time was performed by response surface methodology (RSM). To assess the effects of process variables and interactions among them, a D-optimal design was used as an RSM tool to acquire the maximum response value. The following are the optimum conditions achieved at the reaction time of 4.73 h in the RSM study: 1.02% PTSA, 3 EPO/OA mol ratio and 119.14 ºC reaction temperature. These conditions resulted in 84% yield, 0.041% oxirane oxygen content (OOC), 59.4 mg/g iodine value (IV), and 118.7 mg/g hydroxyl value (HV). The results are in a excellent agreement with the values predicted using a regression model.


Crude palm oil, D-optimal design, Optimization, Ring opening reaction, Biolubricant.

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