Grain Processing Methods’ Effectiveness to Eliminate Mycotoxins: An Overview

Chinaza Godswill Awuchi1,*,, Erick Nyakundi Ondari1,, Chigozie E. Ofoedu2,, James S. Chacha3,, Waheed A. Rasaq4,*,, Sonia Morya5, and Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala6,*,

1Department of Biochemistry, Kampala International University, Ishaka, Uganda

2Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, 460114, Imo, Nigeria

3Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, 3006, Morogoro, Tanzania

4Department of Applied Bioeconomy, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland

5Department of Food Technology, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144001, India

6Department of Functional Food Products Development, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland

*Corresponding authors: E-mail:;;


Mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin, citrinin, deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins, trichothecenes, etc., produced by molds (Aspergillus avus, A. parasiticus, Penicillin spp, etc.) could occupy such grains as peanuts, millet, sunower, cassava, beans, sesame, sorghum, maize, etc. In order to either eliminate and or reduce the levels of mycotoxins, as well as detection limits, there are a number of grain processing techniques that have been reported in the literature. In this article, an overview of the effectiveness of grain processing methods to eliminate mycotoxins was performed. Specifically, the grain processing techniques considered include: extrusion, alkaline cooking, flaking, roasting, frying, baking, milling, cooking, cold plasma, cleaning, trimming, sorting, as well as chemical treatments like the use of sodium hydroxide, citric acid, sodium bisulfite and ammonia. Overall, while most methods seem effective in reducing some mycotoxins over others, more studies are required to identify how these methods particularly their combinations would elevate the removal/degradation of mycotoxins in grains, particularly to safer levels.


Agrofood processing, Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins, Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins.

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