Physico-Chemical Studies of Almond Shell Extracts Potential on the Electropolishing and Electrorefining of Copper

Fatma M. Abouzeid*, and Sultanah Alshammery

Department of Basic Science, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding author: Tel: +966 507555821; E-mail:


Addition of almond shell extract to electrochemical process bath such as electropolishing and electrorefining of copper was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and surface investigation. Addition of several concentrations of the extracts provide a sharp decline in electrorefining rate, but gave augmentation in electropolishing rate. Surfce investigation provided the confirmatory evidence of improved surface texture by almond shell extract addition to copper electropolishing and electrorefining electrolyte. Kinetic investigation and activated constraints were calculated for the electrochemical processes. A distinct improvement in the surface texture was observed where surface irregularity, roughness (Ra) diminishs from 0.95 to 0.43, 0.32, 0.22 and 0.06 μm in the presence of 25, 100, 150 and 200 ppm extract.


Electropolishing, Electrorefining, Copper, Almond shell extract, Scanning electron microscopic, Surface roughness.

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